Experimental and Theoretical NANOTECHNOLOGY (ETN) abbreviated as Exp. Theo. NANOTECHNOLOGY is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and open access journal. It includes specialized research papers, short communications, reviews and selected conference papers in special issues on the characterization, synthesis, processing, structure and properties of different principles and applications of nanotechnology with focus on advantageous achievements and applications for the specialists in engineering, chemistry, physics, materials science and medicine. ETN covers and publishes all aspects of fundamental and applied researches of experimental and theoretical nanoscale technology dealing with materials synthesis, processing, nanofabrication, nanoprobes, spectroscopy, properties, biological systems, nanostructures, nanoelectronics, nano-optics, nano-mechanics, nanodevices, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology within the scope of the journal. ETN aims to acquire the recent and outstanding researches for the benefit of the human being.
Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Cr-implanted ZnO nanowires annealed at 500, 600, and 700 °C. The implantation dose for Cr ions was 1 ×1016 cm−2 , while the implantation energies were 100 keV. Except for ZnO (100), (002), and (200) orientations, no extra diffraction peaks from Cr-related secondary phase or im- purities were observed. With the increasing of annealing temperatures, the intensity of the peaksincreased while the FWHM values decreased. The Cr 2p1/2 and 2p3/2 peaks, with a binding energy difference of 10.6 eV, appear at 586.3 and 575.7 eV, can be attributed to Cr3+ in ZnO nanowires. For the Cr-implanted ZnO nanowires without annealing, the band energy emission disappears and the defect related emission with wavelength of 500–700 nm dominates, which can be attributed to defects introduced by implantation. Cr- implanted ZnO nanowires annealed at 500 °C show a saturation magnetization value of over 11.4 × 10−5 emu and a positive coercive field of 67 Oe. The origin of ferromagnetism behavior can be explained on the basis of electrons and defectsthat form bound magnetic polarons, which over- lap to create a spin-split impurity band. Keywords: ZnO; Annealing temperature; Optical.